It has been our hope that estate and gift tax reform would be settled by the time this article goes to print. Unfortunately, this is not the case. Revenue issues involving the debt ceiling and stop-gap spending are circulating in Congress at the same time as legislative priorities, like infrastructure, are being hashed out, and procedural steps, like filibuster and reconciliation, are being threatened. Tax reform is but one issue in the mix, and its ultimate resolution is influenced by, and dependent upon, the resolution of a number of the others which are still unresolved. This article will provide a summary of the most recent available information.
Perhaps the most significant proposal on the table is the reduction of the lifetime estate and gift tax exemption, often referred to as the “unified credit,” from its current $11,700,000 per person to $6,020,000 per person in 2022 as estimated by the staff on the Joint Committee on Taxation. The lifetime exemption was increased from $5.5-million to $11-million (with adjustments for inflation) as part of the 2017 Tax Act. The increased exemption amount is due to sunset by its own terms on December 31. 2025, but the current proposal would accelerate that timetable. Individuals looking to make maximum use of the higher lifetime exemption currently available will want to consider making gifts before any reduction becomes effective. Under the proposed bill, the provision would apply to decedents dying and gifts made after December 31, 2021.
The current proposals would eliminate the use of discounts for transfer tax purposes when valuing passive, nonbusiness assets. Discounts are generally based on concepts of minority interest and lack of control, and can reduce the value of an asset for gift or estate tax purposes by as much as 50% or more. The proposal would not affect the valuation of assets that are used in the conduct of a trade or business, which could continue to be valued at a discount. Discounts have been useful in leveraging lifetime estate and gift tax exemptions. The new rule, if adopted, would be effective as of the date of enactment.